Friday, May 22, 2020
Presentation Rationale Purpose: The purpose of this speech is to educate and inform my audience of the risks inherent from unintended hypothermia. IÃ¢â¬â¢m eager to alert perioperative staff of the potential dangers as well as the preventative measures that can be taken in order to avoid complications associated with unintended hypothermia. My central idea is hypothermia management saves lives. Intended Audience: My ideal audience for this speech would be those medical professionals working in the perioperative area. Significance: This topic is very significant to my audience because our patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ outcomes are directly related to our competency in this area. Knowledge of what measures are to be implemented to avoid unintended hypothermiaÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Hart et al., 2011) b. The prevention and management of unintended hypothermia remain a nation priority in preventing surgical site infection, and it has been designated as an SCIP quality measure. (Philips, 2015) i. Hypothermia may also trigger thermoregulatory vasoconstriction; the consequent reduction in cutaneous blood flow leads to subcutaneous tissue hypoxia and failure of humoral immune defense systems to reach target areas to fight infection. (Hart et al., 2011) ii. Hypothermia, defined as a core body temperature less than 36C, is a relatively common occurrence in the unwarmed surgical patient. A mild degree of perioperative hypothermia can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. (Hart et al., 2011) Show visual aid (Hart et al., 2011) III. Main Point 2: Unintended hypothermia leads to increased length of stay. a. Hypothermia extends post anesthesia recovery time and prolongs hospitalization. (AORN, 2015). i. Hypothermia decreases metabolism and changes the effects of anesthetic medication. (Rothrick, 2015) ii. Hypothermia can cause adverse cardiovascular, hematologic, immunologic, metabolic, and neurologic effects extending acuity and length of stay (Phillips, 2013). IV. Conclusion a. Restatement of thesis: Research suggests that intraoperative temperature management should be closely monitored
Thursday, May 7, 2020
The idea of epigenesis has become well known as an integral part of the constructivist theory which states that neural activity within the brain is largely spontaneous, driven by genetic and molecular instances (Mareschal, D., Johnson, M.H., Grayson, A., 2004). However, after birth, the neural activity is influenced by sensory and motor experience and the outside environment (Mareschal et al, 2004). Epigenesis is what the constructivist theory is about, the interaction between genes and the environment. A study done by Petersen et al used PET, or positron emission tomography, to understand the responses of native English adult speakers to written stimuli in the form of English words, pseudowords or words that had no meaning but couldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦During development, the temporal lobe is most responsible for responding to auditory (hearing) information, however for those who cannot hear, this section was used for a different sense (Mareschal et al, 2004). This sh ows that the temporal lobe in the brain, although genetically made to hear, had used the childÃ¢â¬â¢s sensory experience to become prominently involved with visual processing, or in other words, adapted to the environment that the child was in. If the brain was already made for development and not influenced by the outside world and environment, it would seem to be nearly impossible for a hearing part of the brain to adapt to only visual processing. Lastly, there was a study done by Mills that tested language acquisition in children, which also showed a link to epigenesis in development. This study concluded that with experience, certain types of processing in the brain are performed by more localised regions of the cortex (Mills, D.M, Coffey, S.A, Neville, H.J., 1993). The researchers collected data from ERPs that suggested processing of small words and control stimuli is spread over a large area of the cortex at first, however, this processing narrows to an area over the lef t temporal lobe only when the childÃ¢â¬â¢s vocabulary reaches about 200 words, regardless of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s age (Mareschal et al, 2004). One could argue that if this narrowing of processing of words happens at a particular age, then that area of theShow MoreRelatedConstructivist Learning Theory And Nursing Practice1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesup-to-date. Ã¢â¬Å"Theory-based practice provides nurses with a perspectiveÃ¢â¬ (Parker, 2006, p.28). With the comprehension and use of educational theories, nursing educators can support student knowledge and development into practice. These theories are outlines of cohesive concepts and principals that describe, explain, or predict how people learn. Every one learns differently and as an educator you need to be familiarized with and open to the use of one or more combinations of theories to successfullyRead MoreCurrent Developments During The Secondary Students And How These Injuries Are Sustained Traumatic Brain Injuries?850 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCurrent Developments in Health Studies- Methodology The focus of this research is to understand the challenges traumatic brain injuries present to post-secondary students and how these injuries are a considerable element to their psychosocial, physical and emotional well-being. Theoretical and Methodological Assumptions An interpretive framework will guide this research with a specific focus on the disability theory. This theory centers on human difference as opposed to defect (Creswell, 2013)Read MoreEssay about What Is Constructivism3002 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pageschild grow from infancy to toddler hood, we marvel at the amount of learning that has allowed her to understand her expanding environment. Those early years provide the basis for language, physical dexterity, social understanding, and emotional development that she will use for the rest of her life. All of this knowledge is acquired before she even sets foot in school! This child has taught herself by gathering information and experiencing the world around her. This is an example of constructivismRead MoreThrough The Collaborative Efforts Of Psychologists Jean1010 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThrough the collaborative efforts of psychologists Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, philosopher Ernst von Glasersfeld and many other contributing research ers, Constructivism has become a successful and supported learning theory. It has been conducted off biological and evolutionary research on cognitive science and developed by researching its role in the representation of learning (Fosnot Perry, 1996). As M. Gail Jones and Laura Brader-Araje (2002) discovered, ConstructivismÃ¢â¬â¢s success was found dueRead MoreLearning Theories Essay6222 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesLearning TheoriesÃ Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Technological Revolution Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Spectrum of Learning Theories Ã¢â¬ ¢ Behaviorism Ã¢â¬ ¢ Constructivism Ã¢â¬ ¢ Fitting the Other Theories into the Spectrum Ã¢â¬ ¢ Theory of Multiple Intelligence Ã¢â¬ ¢ Learning Theories and the Brain Ã¢â¬ ¢ Brain Structures Ã¢â¬ ¢ Implications for Learning Theory Ã¢â¬ ¢ Implications for Multimedia Ã¢â¬ ¢ References Ã By Darren Forrester Noel Jantzie Kilde: http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/%7Egnjantzi/learning_theories.htm Ã ThisRead MoreThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning And The Skinner Box1707 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescontributed to education. BF Skinner, William Glasser, John Dewey, and Lev Vygotski are four notorious men in the history and impact of education. Bf Skinner (1904) was a behaviorist who his most widely known for his theory of operant conditioning and the Skinner box. His created this theory to study human behavior. Operant conditioning includes positive and negative reinforcement as well as positive and negative punishment. Positive reinforcement is giving a person a reward when the child behaves wellRead MorePiaget Of A Child s Brain Development Theory1057 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesare constantly learning about new theories and expanding the knowledge on those that we already know, about the physical and mental development of Children. Through past and present theorists, we are shown whole new aspects of how a child develops to make up the being that they become. Through PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ ËCongnitive development theoryÃ¢â¬â¢ we are shown the stages of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s brain development with a strong focus on the ages newborn Ã¢â¬â 11 years onwards. PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s main theory is that children are able to constructRead MoreThe Philosophical Underpinnings Of Trauma Informed Care1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslate 1990s and early 2000s, social work and mental health professionals began to articulate organizational frameworks for delivery of trauma informed care, as well as conceptual models based on scientific evidence about how traumatic stress impacts brains and behavior (Bloom, 1997; Harris Fallot, 2001; Covington, 2002; Rivard, Bloom, Abramovitz, 2003; Ko, Ford, Kassam-Adams, et al. 2008; Bloom, 2010). In 1998, SAMHSA launched the Women, Co-Occurring Disorders and Violence study, a seminal studyRead MoreChildren With Learning And Developmental Disorders1410 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe Constructivist, Developmental, Social, and Behaviorist Learning Theories as fut ure educators is crucial to our teaching methods. We must understand how students learn in order to provide for their needs as learners. These theories will continue to shape our learners each and every day. Effective teachers will effectively implement these learning theories into their classrooms in order to promote success and achievement for their students. Constructivist and Social Learning Theory LearningRead MoreTeaching Philosophy, Theories, And Pedagogies Work For Your Teaching Style Essay1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto discover what teaching philosophy, theories, and pedagogies work for your teaching style. Ã¢â¬Å"The best way to teachÃ¢â¬ is unique to each individual teacher. Even so, there are some aspects of teaching that are important to being an effective teacher. Some of the facets I will be discussing include understanding the Concordia University Educator as Professional Decision Maker, ReflectiveÃ¢â¬ ¨Practitioner, and Adaptive Expert conceptual framework, learning theories to consider, and effective classroom practices
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Explain the process of negotiation. Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes, to produce an agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for individual or collective advantage, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is the primary method of alternative dispute resolution. We will write a custom essay sample on Mb0038 Ã¢â¬â Management Process and Organization Behavior or any similar topic only for you Order Now Negotiation occurs in business, non-profit organizations, government branches, legal proceedings, among nations and in personal situations such as marriage, divorce, parenting, and everyday life. The study of the subject is called negotiation theory.Professional negotiators are often specialized, such as union negotiators, leverage buyout negotiators, peace negotiators, hostage negotiators, or may work under other titles, such as diplomats, legislators or brokers. Negotiation typically manifests itself with a trained negotiator acting on behalf of a particular organization or position. It can be compared to mediation where a disinterested third party listens to each sidesÃ¢â¬â¢ arguments and attempts to help craft an agreement between the parties.It is also related to arbitration which, as with a legal proceeding, both sides make an argument as to the merits of their Ã¢â¬Å"caseÃ¢â¬ and then the arbitrator decides the outcome for both parties. There are many different ways to segment negotiation to gain a greater understanding of the essential parts. One view of negotiation involves three basic elements: process, behavior and substance. The process refers to how the parties negotiate: the context of the negotiations, the parties to the negotiations, the tactics used by the parties, and the sequence and stages in which all of these play out.Behavior refers to the relationships among these parties, the communication between them and the styles they adopt. The substance refers to what the parties negotiate over: the agenda, the issues (positions and Ã¢â¬â more helpfully Ã¢â¬â interests), the options, and the agreement(s) reached at the end. Another view of negotiation comprises 4 elements: strategy, process and tools, and tactics. Strategy comprises the top level goals Ã¢â¬â typically including relationship and the final outcome. Processes and tools include the steps that will be followed and the roles taken in both preparing for and negotiating with the other parties.Tactics include more detailed statements and actions and responses to othersÃ¢â¬â¢ statements and actions. Some add to this persuasion and influence, asserting that these have become integral to modern day negotiation success, and so should not be omitted. Skilled negotiators may use a variety of tactics ranging from negotiation hypnosis, to a straight forward presentation of demands or setting of preconditions to more deceptive approaches such as cherry picking. Intimidation and salami tactics may also play a part in swaying the outcome of negotiations.Another negotiation tactic is bad guy/good guy. Bad guy/good guy tactic is when one negotiator acts as a bad guy by using anger and threats. The other negotiator acts as a good guy by being considerate and understanding. The good guy blames the bad guy for all the difficulties while trying to get concessions and agreement from the opponent This is a unique combination framework that puts together the best of many other approaches to negotiation. It is particularly suited to more complex, higher-value and slower negotiations. Prepare: Know what you want.Understand them. Open: Put your case. Hear theirs. Argue: Support your case. Expose theirs. Explore: Seek understanding and possibility. Signal: Indicate your readiness to work together. Package: Assemble potential trades. Close: Reach final agreement. Sustain: Make sure what is agreed happens. There are deliberately a larger number of stages in this process as it is designed to break down important activities during negotiation, particularly towards the end. It is an easy trap to try to jump to the end with a solution that is inadequate and unacceptable.Note also that in practice, you may find variations on these, for example there may be loops back to previous stages, stages overlapping, stages running parallel and even out of order. The bottom line is to use what works. This process is intended to help you negotiate, but do not use it blindly. It is not magic and is not a substitute for thinking. If something does not seem to be working, try to figure out why and either fix the problem or try something else. Although there are commonalities across negotiations, each one is different and the greatest skill is to be able to read the situation in the moment and adapt as appropriate. How to cite Mb0038 Ã¢â¬â Management Process and Organization Behavior, Essays
Monday, April 27, 2020
Student Handout Response Sheet: Used with Lab 5 Activity #2 Question Set (The Structure Function of GeneChip Microarrays) Directions: The following questions go with Activity #2 reading on the structure and function of GeneChip microarrays. Answer each question as thoroughly and detailed as possible. Part I Ã¢â¬â Intro, and Gene Expression Microarrays (1) What is gene expression? What can affect gene expression? Ã¢â¬ ¢ When a gene is used to build an mRNA copy (transcription) which is then used to guide the synthesis of a protein (translation), the gene has been Ã¢â¬Å"expressedÃ¢â¬ . Thus the term gene expression refers to anytime a gene is Ã¢â¬Å"turned onÃ¢â¬ , leading to the synthesis of the protein it codes for. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Gene expression can be affected by mutations or environmental factors. Thus the expression of genes is not always consistent within an organism. (2) Are all genes expressed in all cells? Explain why or why not. How do scientists study gene expression? No, not all genes are expressed in every single cell of an organism. We will write a custom essay sample on The Structure Function of GeneChip Microarrays or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Genes that code for vital functions needed by all cells (like getting energy from food) maybe expressed in all cells, while those needed by only specific cells will be found expressed in those cells only (such as pigments that protect skin cells). Ã¢â¬ ¢ By measuring the amount of RNA copies a gene produces, scientists can study that geneÃ¢â¬â¢s level of expression. A highly expressed gene will produce a lot more RNA than a gene that is expressed in small amounts. A gene expression microarray can be used to detect both the presence and amount of RNA present in a cell. (3) What would researchers have to do in order to make a hypothesis about gene expression in the past, before the use of the microarrays? What can they know do with the use of microarrays? Scientists would have to refer to previous research on similar diseases or topics and extrapolate from that information. They would then have to form a hypothesis based on any links they find in this old research. Ã¢â¬ ¢ With the use of microarrays, scientists are able to look at the entire genome at once, measuring the expression of every gene in the organism. They can then make comparisons of which genes are expressed in the cells of different organisms Ã¢â¬â for example: diseased versus normal cells. (3) How many genes are found in the human genome according to the latest studies? Ã¢â¬ ¢ The latest scientific research points to there being approximately 30,000 genes in the human genome. However, this number is not definite. (5) Write the complementary (opposite match) DNA strand to AGGCTAGAC. TCCGATCTG (6) What is the term for the short piece of DNA bound to the glass chip? How many base pairs long is this piece of DNA? What does it represent? This piece of DNA is a probe and it is 25 base pairs long. It represents a small, unique section of the entire gene. (7) Why does the probe not have to represent the entire gene? What does the binding of the RNA to the probe show? This 25 base pair segment is unique to that specific area of the gene. It is so unique that it cannot be found anywhere else in the entire genome. Ã¢â¬ ¢ So, when the RNA binds to the probe, you know that this gene was expressed since no other gene has this specific sequence. This way, you do not need to worry about building a probe that covers the entire gene. This allows the probes to be much smaller, more specific and easier to build. (8) What is hybridization? How is the process of hybridization used by microarrays? Hybridization is the basic attraction between two pieces of nucleic acids Ã¢â¬â either DNA to DNA, RNA to DNA, or RNA to RNA. It occurs due to the basic attraction between A and T as well as C and G. Ã¢â¬ ¢ This process is used to determine which RNA sequences are present in a sample by Ã¢â¬Å"fishingÃ¢â¬ out the specific sequences from a large sample of thousands of different RNAs. Thus, if you have a piece of DNA that is ATCATG, and another piece hybridizes to it, you know the other piece (if it is RNA) must have the sequence of UAGUAC. (9) How specific and accurate is the detection of microarrays? They can detect one single specific RNA molecule in a sample of a mixture of over 100,000 different RNAs. (10) Describe the surface of the microarray chip. Be sure to include the dimensions of the entire array and a single feature. Also discuss the probes in each feature. The array is a 1. 25 cm by 1. 25 cm checkerboard, with each square (or section) known as a feature. There can be up to 6. 5 million features on one chip. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Each square feature is about 11 micrometers by 11 micrometers and built on it is one specific probe. Each feature has about a million copies of a specific probe sequence. In the latest chips the features are actually as small as 5 micrometers by 5 micrometers and have up to 6. 5 million features on them. (11) What are the first few steps done when using a Gene Expression microarray? Ã¢â¬ ¢ The first step is to isolate all of the RNA from the cell and make copies of the RNA through the process of PCR. These RNA pieces are then fragmented and labeled with biotin. (12) What is the purpose of the biotin and the fluorescent molecules? What happens when the RNA sample is washed over the microarray? The biotin attaches to each RNA fragment and acts like a molecular glue for fluorescent molecules that will be washed over the array The fluorescent molecules will then glow and show specifically which feature the RNA has hybridized to. Ã¢â¬ ¢ When the sample is washed over the array, there are millions upon millions of tagged RNA pieces floating around and coming in contact with the million of probes on each feature. Most will not find a match, but somewhere a match may be made and that specific RNA will stick to the probes on the feature. (13) How can you tell if the sample matches a probe? What if it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t? To look for a match, the excess sample is washed off the array, which leaves only the attached RNA (stuck to the probe it matches). To visualize which feature the RNA stuck to and in what amount, a fluorescent molecule is washed over the array and will stick to the biotin on the RNA fragments. The feature that the RNA has combined with will then fluoresce or glow when shined on with a laser from the scanner. Ã¢â¬ ¢ If there is no match between the RNA and the feature probes, all the RNA will wash away and there will be no biotin for the fluorescent dye to stick to. Thus, when it is hit with a laser, it will not fluoresce or glow. (14) How can you tell if the gene was highly expressed? A gene that is highly expressed will create more RNA copies. If this occurs, then many RNA molecules will stick to the probes and the feature will shine brightly when scanned. Those genes expressed at a low level will create a small amount of RNA which will stick to the probes on the feature but will shine with less intensity. (15) How can a Gene Expression microarray be used to determine which genes are taking part in the disease or trait being studied? What can scientists do once they have identified the specific genes responsible? Scientists can look at which genes are expressed in people or organisms with a specific trait or disease. For example, they could identify which genes are expressed specifically in people that are loud speakers and not expressed in those that are not loud speakers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ They can then do further studies to look at what is the function of the proteins created by these genes and find out how they result in the disease or trait. Scientists could do comparison studies using multiple chips to give them even more data. (16) Using heat map results, how could a scientist classify a disease based on genetics? What advantage does that give the researchers? Scientists compare gene expression patterns (heat maps) from people with the disease they are studying to patterns from people with similar diseases or no diseases at all. They do this to look for expression patterns for each situation. This way, they are specifically classifying each disease by the genetics behind it. Ã¢â¬ ¢ This has an advantage because it allows researchers to develop therapies or drugs targeted at the specific genetics that cause the disease and not a general target for a group of similar diseases. (17) In the black and white gene expression image, what colors represent a strong intensity? What does that tell you about the gene expression level of the gene the feature represents? In a colors display image, what gene expression level does each color indicate? white and grey features represent a strong intensity. Ã¢â¬ ¢ This tell you that the genes represented by features express a high level which results in lots of RNA from that gene. The color image display goes from the highest expression level to lowest level expression level. The expressed colors are white, red, yellow, green, light blue, dark blue, and black. (18) Before developing a treatment, what must a scientist who has identified a disease pathway do? How can Gene Expression microarrays be used for this? The scientist need to be able to tell if they block or disrupt the gene pathway in any way with the disease be disrupted and stop progression. This can be tested by blocking the function of the specific gene and evaluating the cells response. Micorarrays can determine which gene or combination of genes should be blocked to treat the disease. (19) How could Gene Expression microarrays be used to find a successful drug? What else can microarrays tell scientists about the effects of the drug? Gene expression microarrays can be used to find a successful drug by taking lagre numbers of chemical compounds and evaluating the effect of the expression of the genes on each compound. Seeing the effect the drug has on the gene expression of a particular organism is how this process occurs. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Visualizing the effects the compounds have on other genes in the genome, giving clues to possible side effects. (20) What is personalized medicine? How can these microarrays be used for this? Personalized medicine is choosing the best treatment for a specific patient by identifying which drugs would work best on them based on their specific genetic pattern. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Microarrays can be used to determine how people will react to specific drug if they have the same genetic pattern. Microarrays can identify specific genetic differences allows educated guesses on how a person will respond to a particular drug treatment. Part II Ã¢â¬â The GeneChip Genotype Microarray for SNPs (21) Define genotype. Explain what a personÃ¢â¬â¢s genotype is and give an example. A genotype is the combination a person has for a section of DNA or genes on the two chromosomes. One chromosome is given from each parent allowing ever person to have a pair of chromosomes. The combination of two alleles makes a genotype. If a Dd allele was crossed with the Ff allele the genotype would be D/F, d/F, F/f, d/f. (22) What is a SNP? Explain. Ã¢â¬ ¢ A SNP is a single nucleotide polymorphism. It is a single base pair difference between two people. One personÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA might be AGC at a specific location and another personÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA might read ACG at the exact same location, (23) How can genotyping SNPs be used to find a disease gene? Researchers can determine which SNPs are found with people of the disease. For example, studies may show that 500 people with the disease share the same dozen or so SNPs. This helps the scientists to pinpoint the areas of the genome to focus their studies and look for the disease gene(s). (24) Why wonÃ¢â¬â¢t a DNA with the sequence ATCATG bind to DNA with the sequence TATGAC? The base C in the first DNA sequence will not match up to the second T in the bottom DNA sequence. The strands do not match 100%. (25) How does knowing the sequence of one DNA strand help you to determine the SNP genotype the person has? How are probes built to find this out? The probes of a SNP genotyping microarray are designed to detect the SNP by having the middle base on the probe be variable. For example, the first probe may read ATTCATG while the second probe may read ATTTATG. These two probes are the exact same except for the middle base of the 7. The middle is used because that is the exact spot where the SNP has been identified. All people have the exact same DNA in the area this probe represents except for the middle base. Ã¢â¬ ¢ If the personÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA sticks to first probe, you know that they must have G in their DNA at that spot (and C on their opposite strand, thus the person has the C/G SNP genotype). If the DNA sticks to the second probe, you know they must have an A at that exact spot (and T on their opposite strand, thus the person has the A/T SNP genotype). (26) How many SNPs are on the newest Genotyping arrays? 500,000 SNPs or more on a single array for the newest genotyping arrays. (27) Where is the SNP found on the 25 base long probe? Either base pair number 13 out of the 25 bases of the probe, or the middle position represents the place of the SNP. (28) Once the probes and the microarray are made, what is the first step to genotyping a sample with a genotyping array? How is this different from the use of gene expression arrays? First you would have to extract the DNA from the subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ blood or saliva. Ã¢â¬ ¢ These two differ because MicroarrayÃ¢â¬â¢s need DNA samples as to gene expression arrays who need RNA from the sample to be tested. The amount of RNA needed for each sample varies because not all genes are expressed in all cells but the amount of DNA used is the exact same every time because the amount of DNA is the exact same in every cell. (29) What are the rest of the steps to get a DNA sample ready for genotype analysis? 1. After extracting the DNA, it must be amplified into large amounts by PCR, then labeled with Biotin. 2. The labeled DNA is then randomly fragmented into pieces. 3. The labeled fragments are washed over the array and those DNA fragments that are complementary to a probe will stick to the array. 4. The array is then washed to remove those fragments not bound and then washed with a fluorescent dye which sticks only to the Biotin-labeled DNA fragments. 5. The array is then scanned to look for which features show matches, indicating which type of SNP. (30) Why does a sample that binds to an ATTCATG probe have the C/G genotype? The middle base is a C so the complementary DNA strand that binds to it must have a G at the same spot where the C is. This makes the genotype C/G. (31) Explain the difference between someone heterozygous for a genotype versus someone who is homozygous for a genotype. Which is implicated in causing more diseases? Why? If a person inherited the A/t genotype for a SNP from both parents, the sequence does not vary making it exactly the same making them homozygous. If a person has one C/G genotype SNP from one parent and one A/T genotype from another, they are heterozygous for this SNP. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diseases will develop more so on a personsÃ¢â¬â¢ homozygous SNP genotype. This is due to the fact if a disease gene attached to the SNP C/G genotype and you are homozygous for that SNP genotype then you now have double the amount of the diseased gene compared to a person with a heterozygous SNP.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Silence essays The novel Silence, written by Shasaku Endo, describes the migration of Christianity into Japan during the 17th century. This movement of a new religion into a foreign country was not very pleasant. Christians were given the option to apostatize or to be put to death by execution or extreme torture. Missionaries were sent out to spread the word of Christ no matter the consequences. The Church at this time was worried about Christianity dying down in Japan so Father Rodrigues and Garrpe made a pilgrimage there. This represents the extent the Church will go to instill its values all around the world. The attempt to westernize Japan was a battle that was to fierce for anyone to over come. Both Christians and the Japanese officials were too bold hearted with supporting what they believe is right. Innocent lives were taken and yet some still would not apostatize because of their dedication to the new religion. The Japanese had strong tradition of believing in Buddhism. This meant that becoming a Christian would be viewed disrespectful to the Japanese officials. The priests had to be secretive with their message of the Lord due to the brutal consequences. They struggled to find their brothers of religion wherever they traveled. Soon the officials heard word of the traveling priests and the samurai ransacked the village. They used three villagers as bait to have the priests come forward. The villagers were killed by the samurai and the priests could not step forward. Eventually, Father Rodrigues is captured and is tortured to the point of exhaustion. Then he is threatened by the samurai that if he does not apostatize, then other prisoners will be killed on his account once again. This time it was a test too great for his faith and was forced to stomp on a picture of the Lord. This symbolized that although a Christian he will have to adapt by keeping his faith to himself. Crea ...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
ESL Present Perfect Worksheets The present perfect isnt a verb tense unique to English, but it can still be complicated for beginning ESL students to master. Though French, Italian, German, and Spanish use the present perfect to address past events, in English, the present perfect connects a past moment to the present moment in time. The present perfect is often used either to reference life experiences, to invoke recent past events that have influenced the present moment, or to reference a span of time that began in the past and extends into the present. The present perfect is one of the most difficult tenses to teach and to learn. Below is a quick review of the present perfect, followed by two worksheets designed to help ESL students practice their use of the verb tense. Present Perfect Positive Form Review Subject have Ã past participle objects Examples: Tom has lived in New York for 10 years.We have studied French since 2003. Present Perfect Negative Form Subject have not past participle objects Examples: She hasnt met Peter.They havent finished the job yet. Present Perfect Question Form (Question Word) have subject past participle? Examples: Has she worked here for a long time?Where has she gone? Important Note:Ã Regular past participles in -ed, irregular past participles of verbs vary and must be studied. Yet / Just / Already Yet is used in the present perfect negative and question forms.Just is used in the present perfect positive form.Already is used in the present perfect positive form. Examples: Have you finished the job yet?Shes just left for Chicago.Theyve already eaten lunch. Since / For Since and for are common time expressions used with the present perfect tense. Since is used with specific dates. For is used with periods of time. Examples: Janet has worked at this company since 1997.Weve lived in this house for five years. Present Perfect Worksheet 1 Conjugate the verb in parentheses using the form indicated. In the case of questions, use the indicated subject as well. How long ______ (he/live) in New Jersey?Peter ______ (not play) baseball since 1987.I ______ (speak) Russian for 20 years.We _____ (not see) Tom since Christmas.Has ________ (Alan/fly) in an airplane before?Shannon _____ (not/go) to lunch yet.Our class _____ (take) a field trip three times this year.Where _____ (they/move) to?Jennifer _____ (ask) that question four times today.You _____ (not eat) lunch yet, have you?Jason _____ (want) to move to New York since he was 5 years old.How long _____ (they/know) Peter?Alexandra _____ (work) for IBM since 2002.Jeff _____ (buy) a few books this week.Sally ______ (not read) that book yet._____ (they/leave) for work yet?Bill _____ (not/drive) very far today.We _____ (enjoy) eating seafood all of our lives._____ (he/watch) the documentary yet?I _____ (not/finish) the job yet. Present Perfect Worksheet 2 Choose the correct time expression used with the present perfect tense. They have lived in that house (since/for) 10 years.She has (just/yet) gone to the bank.Franklin hasnt arrived in Boston (yet/already)We have worked at this company (since/for) 2008.Jason hasnt telephoned me (since/for) two weeks.How (long/much) have you known Susan?Theyve (already/yet) studied the past simple tense.Our mothers have (just/yet) left for the station.The president has traveled to more than 20 countries (since/for) he was elected.Thomas hasnt had time to read the book (just/yet).Alice has told me shes (yet/already) been to that park.My daughters (just/since) finished her homework.Have they (already/yet) spoken to Mr. Peters?Ive (just/for) interviewed the best candidate for the job.Our coach hasnt chosen the starting team (already/yet).Bob and Tim have (already/yet) decided where they are going on vacation.Have you purchased a new computer (just/yet)?Sam has wanted to go to Japan (for/since) he was a little child.Jason hasnt worked here (since/for) very long.Our boss has ( just/yet) hired a new engineer. _______________________________________________________________________________ Present Perfect WorksheetÃ 1 - Corrections Conjugate the verb in parentheses using the form indicated. In the case of questions, use the indicated subject as well. How longÃ has he livedÃ in New Jersey?PeterÃ hasnt played baseballÃ since 1987.IÃ have spokenÃ Russian for 20 years.WeÃ havent seenÃ Tom since Christmas.Has Alan flownÃ in an airplane before?ShannonÃ hasnt goneÃ to lunch yet.Our classÃ has takenÃ a field trip three times this year.WhereÃ have they movedÃ to?JenniferÃ has askedÃ that question four times today.YouÃ havent eatenÃ lunch yet, have you?JasonÃ has wantedÃ to move to New York since he was 5 years old.How longÃ have they knownÃ Peter?AlexandraÃ has workedÃ for IBM since 2002.JeffÃ has boughtÃ a few books this week.SallyÃ hasnt readÃ that book yet.Have they leftÃ for work yet?BillÃ hasnt drivenÃ very far today.WeÃ have enjoyedÃ eating seafood all of our lives.Has he watchedÃ the documentary yet?IÃ havent finishedÃ the job yet. Present Perfect Worksheet 2 - Corrections Choose the correct time expression used with the present perfect tense. They have lived in that houseÃ forÃ 10 years.She hasÃ justÃ gone to the bank.Franklin hasnt arrived in BostonÃ yet.We have worked at this companyÃ sinceÃ 2008.Jason hasnt telephoned meÃ forÃ two weeks.HowÃ longÃ have you known Susan?TheyveÃ alreadyÃ studied the past simple tense.Our mothers haveÃ justÃ leftÃ forÃ the station.The President has traveled to more than 20 countriesÃ sinceÃ he was elected.Thomas hasnt had time to read the bookÃ yet.Alice told me shesÃ alreadyÃ been to that park.My daughtersÃ justÃ finished her homework.Have theyÃ alreadyÃ spoken to Mr. Peters?IveÃ justÃ interviewed the best candidate for the job.Our coach hasnt chosen the starting teamÃ yet.Bob and Tim haveÃ alreadyÃ decided where they are going on vacation.Have you purchased a new computerÃ yet?Sam has wanted to go to JapanÃ sinceÃ he was a little child.Jason hasnt worked hereÃ forÃ very long.Our boss hasÃ justÃ hired a new engine er.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
How lean management can be applied to a grocery retailer - Essay Example This is due to the limited resources; however, small businesses such as small grocery store can incorporate lean thinking in establishing a new business, expansion of the existing business or in placement of other branches in other regions. This paper discusses how a small grocery store owner can use lean thinking for the benefit of the business as well as of the clients. Generally, the application of the lean approach in the context of a small business such as a green grocery, allows the business to minimize its costs, minimize execution time, increase efficiency, reduce all types of wastes, as well as keep low inventories. Moreover, the approach contributes to attainment of customer satisfaction, enhancement of the general product quality as well as increase the management morale, in this case the grocer (Valentinova, 2015). The major objective of using lean retail is basically a commitment to the elimination of wastes. Some of the waste in the context of a grocery store include, excess supply that may result in the damage of the highly perishable products in a grocery. The grocer should ensure that the supply of products is directly proportional to the market demand. This reduces damage of some of the highly perishable products such as tomatoes, and kales. Moreover, the grocer should use preservative measures such as the use of freezers to preserve the perishable products. The owner should also ensure that the likelihood of defects of products is minimized to the lowest level possible. This can be ensured by taking all the required measures in the storage of products, for instance, while preserving perishable grocery products, the business owner should ensure that all the preservative measures are in place for instance, the refrigeration time, period and ensuring that the products are preserved in the best condition (Sen, n.d.). Moreover, the owner should avoid wastage of time